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This research aims to deepen knowledge on geomaterials used in building operations of a very important
monumental complex belonging to the "Porta Mediana" necropolis the archeological site of Cuma.
The entire site counts 70 mausoleums among which, the one named "Sphinx complex" or A63, is particularly
important. For its realization several geomaterials have been used.
Analytical results were carried out from several techniques such as optical microscopy, microchemical and
mineralogical-petrographical analysis, scanning electron microscopy with EDS and X-ray powder
diffraction. This approach allows to clarify the provenance of natural geomaterials and also the technological
processes involved in the production of artificial geomaterials (mortars, plasters, cocciopesto).
Phlegrean tuffs, due to their easy workability and good mechanical features, were used mainly for
masonries and for decorative function (a bas-relief of a "sphinx" for example). As far as artificial geomaterials
are concerned, the use of a volcanic aggregate, was privileged too. Some examples of imported stones were
also found: limestones and marbles, the first one implemented as a building material for cippi of the fence
while the second one for prestigious coating elements. Results permitted to evaluate building techniques of
the period and mainly the wide potential of Phlegrean fields' materials when used as a bulding stone. This
research aims also to give important informations for restoring and conservative actions useful for
mausoleums of the entire site.